Sievers K, Neumann P, Sušac L, Da Vela S, Graewert M, Trowitzsch S, Svergun D, Tampé R, Ficner R
Structure. 2023 Dec 27:S0969-2126(23)00447-1.
Eukaryotic tRNA guanine transglycosylase (TGT) is an RNA-modifying enzyme which catalyzes the base exchange of the genetically encoded guanine 34 of tRNAsAsp,Asn,His,Tyr for queuine, a hypermodified 7-deazaguanine derivative. Eukaryotic TGT is a heterodimer comprised of a catalytic and a non-catalytic subunit. While binding of the tRNA anticodon loop to the active site is structurally well understood, the contribution of the non-catalytic subunit to tRNA binding remained enigmatic, as no complex structure with a complete tRNA was available. Here, we report a cryo-EM structure of eukaryotic TGT in complex with a complete tRNA, revealing the crucial role of the non-catalytic subunit in tRNA binding. We decipher the functional significance of these additional tRNA-binding sites, analyze solution state conformation, flexibility, and disorder of apo TGT, and examine conformational transitions upon tRNA binding.