Bayesian MRI reconstruction with joint uncertainty estimation using diffusion models


Luo G, Blumenthal M, Heide M, Uecker M


Magnetic Resonance in Medicine


Magn Reson Med. 2023 Mar 13.


Purpose: We introduce a framework that enables efficient sampling from learned probability distributions for MRI reconstruction.
Method: Samples are drawn from the posterior distribution given the measured k-space using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, different from conventional deep learning-based MRI reconstruction techniques. In addition to the maximum a posteriori estimate for the image, which can be obtained by maximizing the log-likelihood indirectly or directly, the minimum mean square error estimate and uncertainty maps can also be computed from those drawn samples. The data-driven Markov chains are constructed with the score-based generative model learned from a given image database and are independent of the forward operator that is used to model the k-space measurement.
Results: We numerically investigate the framework from these perspectives: (1) the interpretation of the uncertainty of the image reconstructed from undersampled k-space; (2) the effect of the number of noise scales used to train the generative models; (3) using a burn-in phase in MCMC sampling to reduce computation; (4) the comparison to conventional-wavelet regularized reconstruction; (5) the transferability of learned information; and (6) the comparison to fastMRI challenge.
Conclusion: A framework is described that connects the diffusion process and advanced generative models with Markov chains. We demonstrate its flexibility in terms of contrasts and sampling patterns using advanced generative priors and the benefits of also quantifying the uncertainty for every pixel.


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