Rational Approximation of Golden Angles for Simple and Reproducible Radial Sampling


Scholand N, Graf C, Mackner D, Holme HCM, Uecker M






Purpose: To develop a generic radial sampling scheme that combines the advantages of golden ratio sampling with simplicity of equidistant angular patterns. The irrational angle between consecutive spokes in golden ratio based sampling schemes enables a flexible retrospective choice of temporal resolution, while preserving good coverage of k-space for each individual bin. Nevertheless, irrational increments prohibit precomputation of the point-spread function (PSF), can lead to numerical problems, and require more complex processing steps. To avoid these problems, a new sampling scheme based on a rational approximation of golden angles (RAGA) is developed.
Methods: The theoretical properties of RAGA sampling are mathematically derived. Sidelobe-to-peak ratios (SPR) are numerically computed and compared to the corresponding golden ratio sampling schemes. The sampling scheme is implemented in the BART toolbox and in a radial gradient-echo sequence. Feasibility is shown for quantitative imaging in a phantom and a cardiac scan of a healthy volunteer.
Results: RAGA sampling can accurately approximate golden ratio sampling and has almost identical PSF and SPR. In contrast to golden ratio sampling, each frame can be reconstructed with the same equidistant trajectory using different sampling masks, and the angle of each acquired spoke can be encoded as a small index, which simplifies processing of the acquired data.
Conclusion: RAGA sampling provides the advantages of golden ratio sampling while simplifying data processing, rendering it a valuable tool for dynamic and quantitative MRI.