Bhatta A, Hillen HS
Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Trends Biochem Sci. 2022 Jun 18:S0968-0004(22)00139-6.
Ribonuclease P (RNase P) enzymes are responsible for the 5′ processing of tRNA precursors. In addition to the well-characterised ribozyme-based RNase P enzymes, an evolutionarily distinct group of protein-only RNase Ps exists. These proteinaceous RNase Ps (PRORPs) can be found in all three domains of life and can be divided into two structurally different types: eukaryotic and prokaryotic. Recent structural studies on members of both families reveal a surprising diversity of molecular architectures, but also highlight conceptual and mechanistic similarities. Here, we provide a comparison between the different types of PRORP enzymes and review how the combination of structural, biochemical, and biophysical studies has led to a molecular picture of protein-mediated tRNA processing.