Zhang Y, De Laurentiis E, Bohnsack KE, Wahlig M, Ranjan N, Gruseck S, Hackert P, Wölfle T, Rodnina MV, Schwappach B, Rospert S.
Nat Commun. 2021 Feb 4;12(1):782.
The guided entry of tail-anchored proteins (GET) pathway assists in the posttranslational delivery of tail-anchored proteins, containing a single C-terminal transmembrane domain, to the ER. Here we uncover how the yeast GET pathway component Get4/5 facilitates capture of tail-anchored proteins by Sgt2, which interacts with tail-anchors and hands them over to the targeting component Get3. Get4/5 binds directly and with high affinity to ribosomes, positions Sgt2 close to the ribosomal tunnel exit, and facilitates the capture of tail-anchored proteins by Sgt2. The contact sites of Get4/5 on the ribosome overlap with those of SRP, the factor mediating cotranslational ER-targeting. Exposure of internal transmembrane domains at the tunnel exit induces high-affinity ribosome binding of SRP, which in turn prevents ribosome binding of Get4/5. In this way, the position of a transmembrane domain within nascent ER-targeted proteins mediates partitioning into either the GET or SRP pathway directly at the ribosomal tunnel exit.