Wang X, Rosenzweig S, Roeloffs V, Blumenthal M, Scholand N, Tan Z, Holme HCM, Unterberg-Buchwald C, Hinkel R, Uecker M
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Magn Reson Med. 2022 Nov 20.
Purpose: To develop a free-breathing myocardial mapping technique using inversion-recovery (IR) radial fast low-angle shot (FLASH) and calibrationless motion-resolved model-based reconstruction.
Methods: Free-running (free-breathing, retrospective cardiac gating) IR radial FLASH is used for data acquisition at 3T. First, to reduce the waiting time between inversions, an analytical formula is derived that takes the incomplete recovery into account for an accurate calculation. Second, the respiratory motion signal is estimated from the k-space center of the contrast varying acquisition using an adapted singular spectrum analysis (SSA-FARY) technique. Third, a motion-resolved model-based reconstruction is used to estimate both parameter and coil sensitivity maps directly from the sorted k-space data. Thus, spatiotemporal total variation, in addition to the spatial sparsity constraints, can be directly applied to the parameter maps. Validations are performed on an experimental phantom, 11 human subjects, and a young landrace pig with myocardial infarction.
Results: In comparison to an IR spin-echo reference, phantom results confirm good accuracy, when reducing the waiting time from 5 s to 1 s using the new correction. The motion-resolved model-based reconstruction further improves precision compared to the spatial regularization-only reconstruction. Aside from showing that a reliable respiratory motion signal can be estimated using modified SSA-FARY, in vivo studies demonstrate that dynamic myocardial maps can be obtained within 2 min with good precision and repeatability.
Conclusion: Motion-resolved myocardial mapping during free-breathing with good accuracy, precision and repeatability can be achieved by combining inversion-recovery radial FLASH, self-gating and a calibrationless motion-resolved model-based reconstruction.
Keywords: free-breathing myocardial T1 mapping; motion-resolved model-based reconstruction; radial FLASH; self-gating; spatiotemporal total variation.