Schmidt J, Kaulfuß S, Ott H, Gaubert M, Reintjes N, Bremmer F, Dreha-Kulaczewski S, Stroebel P, Yigit G, Wollnik B
Hum Genet. 2024 Jan 24.
The fibroblast growth factor receptors comprise a family of related but individually distinct tyrosine kinase receptors. Within this family, FGFR2 is a key regulator in many biological processes, e.g., cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Heterozygous activating non-mosaic germline variants in FGFR2 have been linked to numerous autosomal dominantly inherited disorders including several craniosynostoses and skeletal dysplasia syndromes. We report on a girl with cutaneous nevi, ocular malformations, macrocephaly, mild developmental delay, and the initial clinical diagnosis of Schimmelpenning–Feuerstein–Mims syndrome, a very rare mosaic neurocutaneous disorder caused by postzygotic missense variants in HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS. Exome sequencing of blood and affected skin tissue identified the mosaic variant c.1647=/T > G p.(Asn549=/Lys) in FGFR2, upstream of the RAS signaling pathway. The variant is located in the tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR2 in a region that regulates the activity of the receptor and structural mapping and functional characterization revealed that it results in constitutive receptor activation. Overall, our findings indicate FGFR2-associated neurocutaneous syndrome as the accurate clinical-molecular diagnosis for the reported individual, and thereby expand the complex genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of FGFR-associated disorders. We conclude that molecular analysis of FGFR2 should be considered in the genetic workup of individuals with the clinical suspicion of a mosaic neurocutaneous condition, as the knowledge of the molecular cause might have relevant implications for genetic counseling, prognosis, tumor surveillance and potential treatment options.