Kreutzberger AJB, Kiessling V, Doyle CA, Schenk N, Upchurch CM, Elmer-Dixon M, Ward AE, Preobraschenski J, Hussein SS, Tomaka W, Seelheim P, Kattan I, Harris M, Liang B, Kenworthy AK, Desai BN, Leitinger N, Anantharam A, Castle JD, Tamm LK
Elife. 2020 Nov 9;9:e62506.
Insulin secretion from β-cells is reduced at the onset of type-1 and during type-2 diabetes. Although inflammation and metabolic dysfunction of β-cells elicit secretory defects associated with type-1 or type-2 diabetes, accompanying changes to insulin granules have not been established. To address this, we performed detailed functional analyses of insulin granules purified from cells subjected to model treatments that mimic type-1 and type-2 diabetic conditions and discovered striking shifts in calcium affinities and fusion characteristics. We show that this behavior is correlated with two subpopulations of insulin granules whose relative abundance is differentially shifted depending on diabetic model condition. The two types of granules have different release characteristics, distinct lipid and protein compositions, and package different secretory contents alongside insulin. This complexity of β-cell secretory physiology establishes a direct link between granule subpopulation and type of diabetes and leads to a revised model of secretory changes in the diabetogenic process.