Enz LS, Winkler A, Wrzos C, Dasen B, Nessler S, Stadelmann C, Schaeren-Wiemers N
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Sep 9;24(18):13893.
Modeling chronic cortical demyelination allows the study of long-lasting pathological changes observed in multiple sclerosis such as failure of remyelination, chronically disturbed functions of oligodendrocytes, neurons and astrocytes, brain atrophy and cognitive impairments. We aimed at generating an animal model for studying the consequences of chronic cortical demyelination and meningeal inflammation. To induce long-lasting cortical demyelination and chronic meningeal inflammation, we immunized female Lewis rats against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and injected lentiviruses for continuing overexpression of the cytokines TNFα and IFNγ in the cortical brain parenchyma. Immunization with MOG and overexpression of TNFα and IFNγ led to widespread subpial demyelination and meningeal inflammation that were stable for at least 10 weeks. We demonstrate here that immunization with MOG is necessary for acute as well as chronic cortical demyelination. In addition, long-lasting overexpression of TNFα and IFNγ in the brain parenchyma is sufficient to induce chronic meningeal inflammation. Our model simulates key features of chronic cortical demyelination and inflammation, reminiscent of human multiple sclerosis pathology. This will allow molecular, cellular and functional investigations for a better understanding of the adaptation mechanisms of the cerebral cortex in multiple sclerosis.
Keywords: MS cortex pathology; cortical inflammation; demyelination; grey matter lesion; multiple sclerosis.